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沙虎鲨

金合欢属

沙虎鲨也被称为斑点的锯齿,地面或灰色护士鲨。有传言说水族馆是鱼的来源。“tiger” in the sand 虎 name. Originally called sand sharks, the 虎 was added to make them seem more ferocious. 所有 sharks in this family swim slowly with their mouths open, exposing long, narrow, needle-like teeth. They belong to a group of sharks known as ram ventilators that need constant movement to pass water over their gills to breathe. They often find fast-moving currents to help them breathe while exerting less energy. Sand 虎 sharks have been observed “biting” the air, using a stomach full of air to help maintain neutral buoyancy.

Sand 虎 shark close up

细节种类

沙虎鲨

金合欢属

保存状态: 脆弱的

气候变化: 不适用

在水族馆

Our sand 虎 shark’它的主要栖息地是鲨鱼礁湖,但目前正在莫利纳动物保健中心旁边的大型圆形展览中观赏这种动物。扎有维生素的Mahi mahi和沙丁鱼通过长杆喂食。这种喂食技术称为目标喂食。

地理分布

西部和东部大西洋,西部印度洋,西部太平洋和西部地中海。

栖息地

Sand 虎s are mainly found in temperate and tropical waters in shallow bays and sandy coastal waters and on rocky or coral reefs to depths from the surf line to about 190 m (625 ft). They spend most of their time near the bottom. In some areas these sharks make seasonal migrations associated with reproduction, moving to warmer waters to give birth.

物理特性

Sand 虎s are large sharks with a stout, bulky, fusiform body (tapered at both ends), an upturned, short, pointed, flattened snout, and a pronounced subterminal notched caudal fin. Three rows of long needle-like front teeth protrude from their open mouth. The back teeth are molar-like. Their two dorsal fins and anal fins are similar in size.They do not have a nictitating membrane (extra eyelid) with which to protect their eyes during feeding or attacks as many other sharks do.

它们的上身为浅棕色至灰色,逐渐变为下面的白色。幼虫的身体后部和尾巴上散布着小的黄红色或棕褐色斑点,随着年龄的增长逐渐消失。

尺寸

男性平均身高2.2-2.6 m(7-8.5 ft),女性平均身高2.3-3.0 m(7-9.8 ft)。已知这些鲨鱼的长度为3.2 m(10.5英尺),重量为159 kg(350磅)。

饮食

These voracious sharks consume large and small bony fishes, small sharks, rays, crabs, lobsters, and squid. Primarily nocturnal hunters, they feed cooperatively with other sand 虎 sharks, surrounding and herding schooling prey.

再生产

Sand 虎 sharks are ovophagous. Females have two uterine chambers where 16 to 23 eggs each are fertilized internally. Early in development the embryos receive their nourishment from their egg yolk. When they are about 10 cm (4 in) in length, the yolk is exhausted. At the same time the mouth of the embyro becomes functional and teeth are formed.

当胚胎长约17厘米(6.7英寸)时,卵在子宫腔中孵化。每个腔室中最大,最先进的胚胎(通常是第一个孵出的)杀死并消耗正在发育的年轻兄弟姐妹(宫内食人症)。捕食它们的兄弟姐妹后,剩下的两个胚胎以存在的任何卵为食。怀孕八到九个月后,出生了两只幼崽,每个子宫腔中都有一只。幼仔出生时长95至105厘米(37至41英寸)。

Sand 虎 sharks have the lowest reproductive rate known for sharks. They produce only two large pups, one from each uterine cavity, every two years.

行为

它们是强壮但运动缓慢的鲨鱼,相对缓慢,它们大部分时间都在底部附近觅食。他们游到水面吞下并吞下空气,将其保留在胃中以产生近乎中性的浮力,从而使它们在海床上方几乎保持静止。他们是唯一已知的鲨鱼。

通常,除非受到挑衅,否则他们并不积极进取,众所周知,他们对带有长矛和鳍的潜水员的耐受性较低。

适应

与大多数鲨鱼一样,沙虎能够检测到水柱或底物中潜在的猎物发出的电信号,其头部和下颚的侧面有专门的电感应器官,称为Lorenzini壶腹,使它们能够在浑浊的水中找到猎物。它们有一系列沿着身体长度分布的小孔,称为侧线,使它们能够感觉到水在身体周围的运动程度约为300英尺。这有助于发现天敌和潜在的食物来源。他们还具有强烈的嗅觉,触觉和听觉。它们具有良好的视力,对弱光条件非常敏感,并且能够区分明暗物体。它们对电接收,气味和听觉的适应性结合使它们成为高效的和令人恐惧的掠食者。

他们身体的阴影是保护性的伪装。如果捕食者低头看着鲨鱼,那么它的黑暗顶部将融合到下面的黑暗海洋中。从下面看,其主体底部的浅色混入上方的ligher水柱中。

长寿

Estimates of longevity in the sand 虎 shark vary, ranging from fifteen to forty years. This variation appears to be related to geographic location of the studied shark population and may indicate some local environmental issues impacting lifespan.

保护

保护 status of the sand 虎 shark varies based on the geographic region. Globally they are listed as vulnerable, while in the areas of the western Mediterranean, Europe, and eastern Australian coast they are rated as critically endangered due to commercial fishing. In these areas and in the western Pacific this species is the target of “finning,” in which sharks are caught for their fins. Regulations to protect the sand 虎 shark have been established in Europe, the Mediterranean, eastern Australia, and eastern coast of the U.S.

在其范围内的所有地区都进行商业捕鱼,由于过度捕捞,它们被迫商业灭绝。他们可预见的习惯,受教育程度和低繁殖率都导致他们的人口大量减少。

研究表明,鲨鱼生态旅游的发展虽然引起争议,但却对公众对鲨鱼的印象以及需要加大保护力度的活动产生了积极影响。

特别说明

鲨鱼的有效范围’检测电信号的能力约为20到30厘米(1英尺)

Although their many rows of teeth are often highly visible, they are not an aggressive shark and do not pose a threat to humans. Most of the available information about sand 虎 sharks comes from observations and studies conducted in aquariums.

细节种类 | 打印完整条目

沙虎鲨

金合欢属

保存状态: 脆弱的

气候变化: 不适用

Our sand 虎 shark’它的主要栖息地是鲨鱼礁湖,但目前正在莫利纳动物保健中心旁边的大型圆形展览中观赏这种动物。扎有维生素的Mahi mahi和沙丁鱼通过长杆喂食。这种喂食技术称为目标喂食。

西部和东部大西洋,西部印度洋,西部太平洋和西部地中海。

Sand 虎s are mainly found in temperate and tropical waters in shallow bays and sandy coastal waters and on rocky or coral reefs to depths from the surf line to about 190 m (625 ft). They spend most of their time near the bottom. In some areas these sharks make seasonal migrations associated with reproduction, moving to warmer waters to give birth.

Sand 虎s are large sharks with a stout, bulky, fusiform body (tapered at both ends), an upturned, short, pointed, flattened snout, and a pronounced subterminal notched caudal fin. Three rows of long needle-like front teeth protrude from their open mouth. The back teeth are molar-like. Their two dorsal fins and anal fins are similar in size.They do not have a nictitating membrane (extra eyelid) with which to protect their eyes during feeding or attacks as many other sharks do.

它们的上身为浅棕色至灰色,逐渐变为下面的白色。幼虫的身体后部和尾巴上散布着小的黄红色或棕褐色斑点,随着年龄的增长逐渐消失。

男性平均身高2.2-2.6 m(7-8.5 ft),女性平均身高2.3-3.0 m(7-9.8 ft)。已知这些鲨鱼的长度为3.2 m(10.5英尺),重量为159 kg(350磅)。

These voracious sharks consume large and small bony fishes, small sharks, rays, crabs, lobsters, and squid. Primarily nocturnal hunters, they feed cooperatively with other sand 虎 sharks, surrounding and herding schooling prey.

Sand 虎 sharks are ovophagous. Females have two uterine chambers where 16 to 23 eggs each are fertilized internally. Early in development the embryos receive their nourishment from their egg yolk. When they are about 10 cm (4 in) in length, the yolk is exhausted. At the same time the mouth of the embyro becomes functional and teeth are formed.

当胚胎长约17厘米(6.7英寸)时,卵在子宫腔中孵化。每个腔室中最大,最先进的胚胎(通常是第一个孵出的)杀死并消耗正在发育的年轻兄弟姐妹(宫内食人症)。捕食它们的兄弟姐妹后,剩下的两个胚胎以存在的任何卵为食。怀孕八到九个月后,出生了两只幼崽,每个子宫腔中都有一只。幼仔出生时长95至105厘米(37至41英寸)。

Sand 虎 sharks have the lowest reproductive rate known for sharks. They produce only two large pups, one from each uterine cavity, every two years.

它们是强壮但运动缓慢的鲨鱼,相对缓慢,它们大部分时间都在底部附近觅食。他们游到水面吞下并吞下空气,将其保留在胃中以产生近乎中性的浮力,从而使它们在海床上方几乎保持静止。他们是唯一已知的鲨鱼。

通常,除非受到挑衅,否则他们并不积极进取,众所周知,他们对带有长矛和鳍的潜水员的耐受性较低。

与大多数鲨鱼一样,沙虎能够检测到水柱或底物中潜在的猎物发出的电信号,其头部和下颚的侧面有专门的电感应器官,称为Lorenzini壶腹,使它们能够在浑浊的水中找到猎物。它们有一系列沿着身体长度分布的小孔,称为侧线,使它们能够感觉到水在身体周围的运动程度约为300英尺。这有助于发现天敌和潜在的食物来源。他们还具有强烈的嗅觉,触觉和听觉。它们具有良好的视力,对弱光条件非常敏感,并且能够区分明暗物体。它们对电接收,气味和听觉的适应性结合使它们成为高效的和令人恐惧的掠食者。

他们身体的阴影是保护性的伪装。如果捕食者低头看着鲨鱼,那么它的黑暗顶部将融合到下面的黑暗海洋中。从下面看,其主体底部的浅色混入上方的ligher水柱中。

Estimates of longevity in the sand 虎 shark vary, ranging from fifteen to forty years. This variation appears to be related to geographic location of the studied shark population and may indicate some local environmental issues impacting lifespan.

保护 status of the sand 虎 shark varies based on the geographic region. Globally they are listed as vulnerable, while in the areas of the western Mediterranean, Europe, and eastern Australian coast they are rated as critically endangered due to commercial fishing. In these areas and in the western Pacific this species is the target of “finning,” in which sharks are caught for their fins. Regulations to protect the sand 虎 shark have been established in Europe, the Mediterranean, eastern Australia, and eastern coast of the U.S.

在其范围内的所有地区都进行商业捕鱼,由于过度捕捞,它们被迫商业灭绝。他们可预见的习惯,受教育程度和低繁殖率都导致他们的人口大量减少。

研究表明,鲨鱼生态旅游的发展虽然引起争议,但却对公众对鲨鱼的印象以及需要加大保护力度的活动产生了积极影响。

鲨鱼的有效范围’检测电信号的能力约为20到30厘米(1英尺)

Although their many rows of teeth are often highly visible, they are not an aggressive shark and do not pose a threat to humans. Most of the available information about sand 虎 sharks comes from observations and studies conducted in aquariums.